International Journal of Environmental Protection          
An Open Access Journal
ISSN: 2226-6437(Print)      ISSN: 2224-7777(Online)
Frequency: Annually
Editorial-in-Chief: Prof. Kevin Mickus,
Missouri University of Science & Technology, USA.
Environmental and Ecological Aspects of First Generation Genetically Modified Crops Regarding Their Impacts in a European Maize Producer Country
Full Paper(PDF, 4492KB)
The success of the first generation of genetically modified (GM) crops for plant protection purposes in the US has not been followed by similar progress in Europe, where cultivation represents only 3‰ of the overall worldwide GM cultivation area. As for insect resistant GM plants, protection against numerous important maize pests is yet unresolved e.g., against soil-borne pests. Yield advantages of the MON 810 and SYN-Bt11 maize varieties tested in Hungary, who is the second biggest European maize producer, was lowered by 5%. Resistance against pests to Cry toxins rapidly emerges in the US. As for glyphosate tolerant GM crops certain dangerous weeds resistant to glyphosate are being selected in field applications. First-generation GM crops do not offer a solution to the fundamental ecological conflicts of industrial agriculture, mostly rooted in monoculture-based cultivation.
Keywords:Genetically Modified Crops; Glyphosate Tolerant; Lepidopteran Resistant; Coleopteran Resistant; Bacillus Thuringiensis; Cry Toxins; Pest Resistance
Author: Székács, A1, Darvas B.2
1.Department of Ecotoxicology and Environmental Analysis, Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
2.Central Food Research Institute Budapest, Hungary
  1. Darvas and L. A. Polgár, “Novel type insecticides: specificity and effects on non-target organisms,” in Insecticides with Novel Modes of Action, Mechanism and Application, I. Ishaaya and D. Degheele, Eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 188–259, 1998.
  2. J. Romeis, M. Meissle and F. Bigler, „Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and biological control,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 24, pp. 63–71, 2006.
  3. U.S. National Research Council, The impact of genetically engineered crops on farm sus-tainability in the United States, National Academies Press, Washington DC, USA, 2010.
  4. Székács and B. Darvas, “Comparative aspects of Cry toxin usage in insect control,” in Advanced Technologies for Managing Insect Pests, I. Ishaaya, S. R. Palli and R. Horowitz, Eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, in press, 2011.
  5. A. Székács and B. Darvas, “Forty Years with Glyphosate,” in Herbicides – Properties, Synthesis and Control of Weeds, Hasaneen MNAE-G Ed., InTech, Rijeka, Croatia pp. 247–284, 2012. Available:
  6. B. Darvas and A. Székács, Eds., Hungarian Background on Views of 1st Generation Genetically Modified Plants, Agricultural Committee of the Hungarian Parliament, Budapest, Hungary, 2011. Available:
  7. A. Székács, É. Lauber, E. Takács and B. Darvas, “Detection of Cry1Ab toxin in the leaves of MON 810 transgenic maize,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem., vol. 396, pp. 2203–2211, 2010.
  8. B. Darvas, H. Bánáti, E. Takács, É. Lauber, Á. Szécsi and A. Székács, “Relationships of Helicoverpa armigera, Ostrinia nubilalis and Fusarium verticillioides on MON 810 maize,” Insects, vol. 2, pp. 1–11, 2011.
  9. A. Székács, É, Lauber, J. Juracsek and B. Darvas, “Cry1Ab toxin production of MON 810 transgenic maize,” Environ. Toxicol. Chem., vol. 29, pp. 182–190, 2010.
  10. S. B. Powles, D. F. Lorraine-Colwill, J. J. Dellow and C. Preston, “Evolved resistance to glyphosate in rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in Australia,” Weed Science, vol. 46, pp. 604–607, 1998.
  11. A. Shrestha and K. Hemree, “Glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) biotype found in the South Central Valley,” California Agriculture, vol. 61, pp. 267–270, 2007.
  12. S. B. Powles, “Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lesson to be learnt,” Pest Management Science, vol. 64, pp. 360–365, 2008.
  13. D. L. Shaner, “Role of translocation as a mechanism of resistance to glyphosate,” Weed Science, vol. 57, pp. 118–123, 2009.
  14. B. E. Tabashnik, J. B. J. van Rensburg and Y. Carriére, “Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data,” J. Econ. Entomol., vol. 102, pp. 2011–2025, 2009.
  15. A. L. B. Crespo, T. A. Spencer, A. P. Alves, R. L. Hellmich, E. E. Blankenship, L. C. Magalhäesa and B. D. Siegfried, “On-plant survival and inheritance of resistance to Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in a field-derived strain of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis,” Pest. Manag. Sci., vol. 65, pp. 1071–1081, 2009.
  16. A. J. Gassmann, J. L. Petzold-Maxwell, R. S. Keweshan and M. W. Dunbar, “Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6 (7), pp. e22629, 2011. (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022629).
  17. A. Székács, J. Juracsek, L. A. Polgár and B. Darvas, “Levels of expressed Cry1Ab toxin in genetically modified corn DK-440-BTY (YieldGard) and stubble,” FEBS J., vol. 272, Suppl 1, pp. 508, 2005.
  18. G. Bakonyi, F. Szira, I. Kiss, I. Villányi, A. Seres and A. Székács, “Preference tests with collembolas on isogenic and Bt-maize,” Eur. J. Soil Biol., vol. 42, S132-S135, 2006.
  19. G. Bakonyi, A. Dolezsai, N. Mátrai and A. Székács, “Long-term effects of Bt-maize (MON 810) consumption on the Collembolan Folsomia candida,”. Insects, vol. 2 (2): 243-252, 2011.
  20. J. E. Losey, L. S. Rayor and M. E. Carter, “Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae,” Nature, vol. 399, pp. 214, 1999.
  21. B. Darvas, A. Csóti, A. Gharib, L. Peregovits, L. Ronkay, É. Lauber and A. L. Polgár, “Some data to the risk analysis of Bt-corn pollen and protected Lepidoptera species in Hungary,” (in Hungarian) Növényvédelem, vol. 40, pp. 441–449, 2004.
  22. A. Lang, É. Lauber and B. Darvas, “Early tier tests are not sufficient for GMO risk assessment,” Nat. Biotech. Vol. 25, pp. 35–36, 2007.
  23. D. A. Andow, G. L. Lövei and S. Arpaia, “Ecological risk assessment for Bt crops,” Nat. Biotech., vol. 24, pp. 749–751, 2006.
  24. Á. Pusztai, Zs. Bardócz and S. W. B. Ewen, “Genetically modified foods: Potential Human Health Effects,” in Food Safety: Contaminants and Toxins, J. P. F. D’Mello Ed., CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, pp. 347–372, 2003.
  25. B. G. Hammond, R. Dudek, J. K. Lemen and M. A. Nemeth, “Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn borer-protected corn,” Food. Chem. Toxicol., vol. 44, pp. 1092–1099, 2006.
  26. G-E. Séralini, D. Cellier and J. P. de Vendômois, “New analysis of a rat feeding study with a ge-netically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity,” Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol. 45, pp. 2073–2085, 2007.
  27. J. Doull, D. Gaylor, H. A. Greim, D. P. Lovell, B. Lynch and I. C, Munro, “Report of an expert panel on the reanalysis by Séralini et al. (2007) of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in sup-port of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863),” Food. Chem. Toxicol., vol. 45, pp. 2073–2085, 2007.
  28. A. Kiliç and M. T. Akay, “A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: biochemical and histopathological investigation,” Food. Chem. Toxicol., vol. 46, pp. 1164–1170, 2008.
  29. J. S. de Vendômois, F. Roullier, D. Cellier and G-E. Séralini, “A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health,” Int. J. Biol. Sci. vol. 5, pp. 706–726, 2009.
  30. J. S. de Vendômois, D. Cellier, C. Vélot, E. Clair, R. Mesnage and G-E. Séralini, Debate on GMOs health risks after statistical findings in regulatory tests. Int. J. Biol. Sci. vol. 6, pp. 590–598, 2010.
  31. G-E. Séralini, R. Mesnage, E. Clair, S. Gress, J. S. de Vendômois and D. Cellier, “Genetically modified crops safety assessments: present limits and possible improvements,” Environmental Sciences Europe vol. 23, pp. 1-10, 2011.