International Journal of Environmental Protection
An Open Access Journal
Editorial-in-Chief: Prof. Kevin Mickus,
Missouri University of Science & Technology, USA.
|Rainfall, Runoff and Erosion Analyses in a Sandy Desert Watershed under Mid-Latitude Cyclones Using the Kineros2 Model
|Full Paper(PDF, 566KB)
|Yamin Plain as the host of the national radioactive waste disposal in near surface repositories is very sensitive to erosion during flood events. To estimate the runoff and erosion Kineros2 model was used. For the period of 2012-2015, twelve related rainfall and runoff events were recorded from a centrally-located recording rain gage and separate runoff station at the outlet of the Nahal Yamin watershed, located in the northeast of the Negev Desert, Israel. Four of the storms, associated with mid-latitude cyclones were analysed due to the assumed relatively homogeneous distribution of rain. Three runoff parameters-peak discharge, time to peak and runoff volume were used to compare the computed with the measured hydrograph. In two events the fit was 2.16 and 3.67 for Root Mean Square Errors of 0.48 and -0.54 for Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients. The erosion rate calculated by the model of a few millimetres per event were in the same of order of magnitude as found by different techniques. In this limited application, the Kineros2 model provided valuable insight into the hydrological functioning of a critical arid watershed.
|Keywords:Kineros; Hydrograph; Hydraulic Conductivity; Arid Zone; Erosion Rate
|Author: Avraham Dody1, Rose Shillito2, Amir Givati3, Ayal Siegel3, Udi Galili3, Omer Eisenberg4|
|1.Geography Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
2.Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV, 89119, USA
3.Israeli Water Authority, Hydrological Service, Jerusalem, Israel
4.NRCN, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva, 84190 Israel
- M. Inbar, “Effects of a high magnitude flood in a Mediterranean climate: a case study in the Jordan River basin,” In Mayer L, Nash D. Catastrophic Flooding. Allen and Unwin: London, pp. 333-353, 1987.
- A. Ben-Zvi and O. Cohen, “Frequency and magnitude of flows in the Negev,” Catena, vol. 2, pp. 193-199, 1975.
- A. Ben-Zvi, “Flow Events in the Negev - a regional quantitative model,” Water International, vol. 7 (3), pp. 127-133, 1982.
- A. Yair, “Runoff generation in sandy area – the Nizzana sands, Western Negev, Israel,” Earth Surface Process and Landforms, vol. 15(1), pp. 597-609. DOI: 10.1002/esp.3290150703, 1990.
- G. J Kidron and K. Pick, “The limited role of localized convective storms in runoff production in the Western Negev, Israel,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 229 (3-4), pp. 281-289, 2000.
- A. Ben-Zvi, and I. Shentsis, “Assessment of runoff as a component of water resources in the Negev and Arava,” Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 50 (2-4), pp. 61-70, 2001.
- N. Greenbaum, T. Harden, V. Baker, J. Weisheit, M. Cline, N. Porat, R. Halevi and J. Dohrenwend, “A 2000 year natural record of magnitudes and frequencies for the largest upper Colorado river floods near Moab, Utah,” Water Resources Research, vol. 50(6), pp. 5249-5269. DOI: 10.1002/2013WRO14835, 2014.
- H. Capart, “Analytical solutions for gradual dam breaching and downstream river flooding,” Water Resources Research, vol. 49(4), pp. 1968-1987. DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20167, 2013.
- P. Owusu S. Odai, F. Annor and K. Adjei, “Reservoir storage for managing floods in urban areas: a case study of Dzorwulu basin in Accra,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 27, pp. 1615-1625. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9286, 2013.
- E. Morin, Y. Enzel, U. Shamir, and R. Garti, “The characteristic time scale for basin hydrological response using radar data,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 252, pp. 85-99. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(01)00451-6, 2001.
- E.Morin, T. Grodek, O Dahan, G. Benito, C. Kulls, Y. Jacoby, G. Van Lagenhove, M. Seely and Y. Enzel, “Flood routing and alluvial aquifer recharge along the ephemeral arid Kuiseb River, Namibia,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 368, pp. 262-275. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.02.015, 2009.
- A. Milewski, M Sultan, E. Yan, R. Becker, A Abdeldayem, F. Soliman and K.A. Gelil, “A remote sensing solution for estimating runoff and recharge in arid environments,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 373, pp. 1-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.04.002, 2009.
- J.F. Costelloe, R.B. Grayson, R.M. Argent and T.A. McMahon, “Modelling the flow regime of an arid zone floodplain river, Diamantina River, Australia,” Environmental Modelling & Software, vol. 18, pp. 693-703. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-8152(03)00071-9, 2003.
- N. Greenbaum, Y. Enzel and A.P. Schick, “Magnitude and frequency of paleofloods and historical floods in the Arava basin, Negev Desert, Israel,” Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 50, pp. 159-186. DOI: 10.1560/N5VU-FU5F-QNWC-UDCK, 2001.
- A.S. El-Hames and K.S. Richards, “An integrated, physically based model for arid region flash flood prediction capable of simulating dynamic transmission loss,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 12, pp. 1219-1232. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(19980630)12:8<1219::AID-HYP613>3.0.CO;2-Q, 1998.
- K.D. Sharma, J.S.R. Murthy, “A practical approach to rainfall-runoff modelling in arid zone drainage basins,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 43, pp. 331-348. DOI: 10.1080/02626669809492130; 11, 1998.
- I. Shentsis, A. Ben-Zvi and S. Golts, “A physically-related regional model for extreme discharges in Israel,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 42(3), pp. 391-404, 1997.
- L.K. Sherman, “Streamflow from rainfall by unit-graph method,” Engineering News-Record, vol. 108, pp. 501-505, Apr. 1932.
- J.E. Nash, “The form of the instantaneous unit hydrograph,” IAHS Publication, vol. 45, pp. 114-120, 1957.
- L.J. Lane, “A proposed model for flood routing in abstracting ephemeral channels,” Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the Southwest, 6 May 1972, pp. 439-453, 1972.
- W.R. Peebles, “Flow recession in the ephemeral stream,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Arizona, 1975.
- M.O. Walters, ‘Transmission losses in an arid region,” Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, vol. 116, pp. 129-138, 1990.
- G. Ronen-Eliraz, H. Ginat, A. Dody, D. Blumberg and O. Dahan, “Flood hydrograph reconstruction from the peak flow value in ephemeral streams using a simplified robust single parameter model,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 30(17), pp. 3004-3013. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10831, 2016.
- N. Greenbaum, A. Margalit, A.P. Schick, D. Sharon, V.R. Baker, “A high magnitude storm and flood in a hyperarid catchment, Nahal Zin, Negev Desert, Israel,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 12, pp. 1-23. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199801)12:1<1::AID-HYP559>3.0.CO;2-6, 1998.
- R. Kahana, B. Ziv, U. Dayan and Y. Enzel, “Atmospheric predictors for major floods in the Negev Desert,” Israel International Journal of Climatology, vol. 24, pp. 1137-1147. DOI: 10.1002/joc.1056, 2004.
- B. Ziv, U. Dayan and D. Sharon, “A mid-winter, tropical extreme flood-producing storm in southern Israel: synoptic scale analysis,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 88, 53p, 2005.
- U. Dayan and E. Morin, “Flood-producing rainstorms over the Dead Sea Basin,” in: Enzel, Y., Agnon, A., Stein, M., (Eds.), New Frontiers in the Dead Sea Paleoenvironmental Research. Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, pp. 53-62, 2006.
- M. El Bastawesy, K. White and A. Nasr, “Integration of remote sensing and GIS for modelling flash floods in Wadi Hudain catchment, Egypt,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 23, pp. 1359-1368. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7259, 2009.
- G. Al-Rawas and C. Valeo, “Relationship between wadi drainage characteristics and peak-flood flows in arid northern Oman,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, vol. 55, pp. 377-393. DOI: 10.1080/02626661003718318; 23, 2010.
- International Atomic Energy Agency, Near Surface Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste. SPECIFIC Safety Guide. IAEA Safety Standards Series, No. SSG-29, 2014.
- A. Dody, A. Nahlieli, Y. Avni, H. Cohen, D. Weiner and N. Porat, “Late quaternary deposition and erosion process along the margins of the Yamin Plain, Northeast Negev, Israel,” Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 57, pp. 199-211, 2008.
- A. Matmon, A. Dody and R. Finkel, “A 300-ky history of sand erosion in the Yamin Plain, Negev Desert, Israel,” Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 58(1), pp. 29-39, 2009.
- E. Kernel, Syriche Bogen. Mineral, vol. 9, pp. 274-281, 1924 (in German).
- A. Salomon, “The monoclines in the Northern Negev: a model of tilted blocks and shortening,” MSc thesis. Hebrew University Jerusalem Israel, 1987 (in Hebrew, English abstract).
- R. Calvo and Y. Bartov, “Hazeva Group, southern Israel: New observations and their implications for its stratigraphy, paleogeography, and tectono-sedimentary regime,” Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 50, pp. 71-99, 2001.
- I. Bruner, D. Weiner, M.Goldman, R. Calvo and Y. Bartov, Geophysical investigation through subsurface imaging in the Mishor Yamin area, Geophysical Institute of Israel. Rep 641/170/96 1999 (in Hebrew).
- A. Dody and D. Wiener, “Recharge processes of the Neogene aquifer in Mishor Yamin NE Negev, Israel,” Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 54 (1), pp. 29-34, 2005.
- R. Kahana, B. Ziv, Y. Enzel and U. Dayan, “Synoptic climatology of major floods in the Negev Desert, Israel,” International Journanl of Climatology, vol. 22, pp. 867-882, 2002.
- U. Columbus, A. Dody, I. Renan, Y. Bogin-Zilka, Z. Siegal, M. Walchak and Y. Zvik, Ecological Survey in Yamin and Rotem Plains. Israel Nature and Parks, 2016 (in Hebrew).
- G. Hetz, “Monitoring surface alternations in the Yamin Plateau by spaceborne images and aerial photography between 1945–2009,” Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 2009 (in Hebrew, English abstract).
- A. Edri, “Spatial differences in aeolian erosion of arid silty - sand soils due to surface features,” Unpublished M.A. thesis, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, 2014 (in Hebrew, English abstract).
- S. Ravikovitch, The Soils of Israel: Formation, Nature and Properties. Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 1981 (in Hebrew).
- G. Mazor, G.J. Kidron, A. Vonshak and A. Abeliovich, “The role of cyanobacterial exopolysaccharides in structuring desert microbial crusts,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 21, pp. 121-130, 1996.
- E. Zaady and Y.Z. Offer, “Biogenic soil crusts in arid zones increase soil depth by incorporating aeolian deposition,” Sedimentology, vol. 57, pp. 351-358, 2010.
- E. Zaady, S. Arbel, D. Barkai and S. Sarig, “Long-term impact of agricultural practices on biological soil crusts and their hydrological processes in a semiarid landscape,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 90, pp. 5-11, 2013.
- A. Yair, “Effects of biological soil crusts on water redistribution in the Negev Desert, Israel: Case Study in longitudinal dunes,” In: Belnap J, and Lange O L. Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function and Management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 303-314, 2001.
- J. Belnap, “The potential roles of biological soil crusts in dryland hydrologic cycles,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 20(15), pp. 3159-3178. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6325, 2006.
- A. Dody, R. Hakmon, B. Asaf and E. Zaady, “Indices to monitor biological soil crust growth rate - lab and field experiments,” Natural Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 478-483, 2011.
- D.A. Whoolhiser, R.E. Smith and D.C. Goodrich, KINEROS a Kinematic Runoff and Erosion Model, Documentation and User Manual. ARS-77, USDA, 1990.
- J.R. Kennedy, D.C. Goodrich, C.L. Unkrich, “Using the KINEROS2 modelling framework to evaluate the increase in storm runoff from residential development in a semiarid environment,” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 18, pp. 698-706. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)HF.1934-5584.0000655, 2013.
- G. Sidman, D.P. Guertin, D.C. Goodrich, D. Thoma, D. Falk, and I.S. Burns, “A coupled modelling approach to assess the effect of fuel treatments on post-wildfire runoff and erosion,” International Journal of Wildland Fire, vol. 25(3), pp. 351-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WF14058, 2016.
- A.D. Ziegler, T.W. Giambelluca and R.A. Sutherland, “Erosion prediction on unpaved mountain roads in northern Thailand: validation of dynamic erodibility modelling using KINEROS2,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 15, pp. 337-358, 2001.
- J.E. Nash and J.V. Sutcliffe, “River flow forecasting through conceptual models part I - A discussion of principles,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 10 (3), pp. 282-290, 1970.
- R.E. Smith and D.C. Goodrich, “Model for rainfall excess patterns on randomly heterogeneous area,” Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 355-362, 2000.
- R.E, Smith, Infiltration theory for hydrologic applications. Water Resources Monograph 15. American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 2002.
- Y. Alexandrov, H. Cohen, J.B. Laronne, and I. Reid, “Total water-borne material losses from a semi-arid drainage basin: a 15-year study of the dynamics of suspended, dissolved and bed loads,” Water Resources Research, vol. 45, W08408, DOI: 10.1029/2008WR007314, 2009.
- M.D. Powell, I. Reid, J.B. Laronne and L.E. Frostick, “Bedload as a component of sediment yield from a semi-arid watershed of the northern Negev,” In: D.E. Walling and B.W. Webb, eds., Erosion and Sediment Yield: Global and Regional Perspectives. Wallingford: IAHS Press, IAHS Publ., vol. 236, pp. 389-397, 1996.
- J.B. Laronne and I. Reid, “Very high rates of bedload sediment transport by ephemeral desert rivers,” Nature, vol. 36, pp. 148-150 and 113p, 1993.
- H. Cohen, and J.B. Laronne, “High rates of sediment transport by flashfloods in the Southern Judean Desert, Israel,” Hydrological Processes, vol. 19, pp. 1687-1702, 2005.